# 12. Verilog - Assignments¶

## 12.1. Continuous Assignment Statements¶

In Verilog the statements that are outside an always or initial block are called continuous. For example in the next code the net out changes when a or b changes:

wire out = a + b; // Implicit statement


Wich is equal to:

wire out;
assign out = a + b;


When the right-hand side (RHS) changes the left-hand side updates immediately. RHS can be a net, reg, or functions calls and LHS must be a net.

## 12.2. Procedural Statements¶

There are two types of procedural statements, the always block and the initial block. In Verilog there may be several always blocks and they are executed in parallel. The initial block is used for simulation, it can’t be synthesized and it executes only once in the start a simulation.

The always block executes when its pre-defined funtions, or its inputs changes. The pre-defined functions are posedge and negedge, and they are used with clock variables to detect when it rises to 1 or decays to 0. Example:

initial begin  // used for simulation
a = 3'b101;
b = 3'b001;
end

always@(a or b) begin  //executes when a or b changes
c = a + b;
end

always@(posedge clock) begin //executes in the positive edge of clock
c = a + b;
end


## 12.3. Blocking vs Non-blocking Assignments¶

If the assignments inside an always or initial block are made with the (=) symbol they are executed sequentially. If they are made with the (<=) they are executed in parallel. They are used to update reg, integer, real, time and realtime values. The real, time and realtime values are used in simulation and are not synthesizable. Examples:

### 12.3.1. Blocking¶

reg a [1:0] = 2'b01;
reg b [1:0] = 2'b10;
reg c [3:0] = 4'b0000;
reg d [3:0] = 4'b0000;

always@(posedge clock) begin  //executes on clock
c = a + b;        // statements in sequence
d = c + a;        // after the clock rising c = 4'0011
end               // and d = 4'0100;


### 12.3.2. Non-Blocking¶

reg a [1:0] = 2'b01;
reg b [1:0] = 2'b10;
reg c [3:0] = 4'b0000;
reg d [3:0] = 4'b0000;

always@(posedge clock) begin  //executes on clock
c <= a + b;        // statements in parallel
d <= c + a;        // after the clock rising c = 4'0011
end                // and d = 4'0001;


## 12.4. References¶

Verilog HDL Basics - Altera